Information security is a process that organizations use to protect information. This includes policy settings that prevent unwanted people from accessing business-related data or personal information. Information security protects critical information from unwanted access, including inspection, modification, recording, and any disruption or destruction. It ensures the safety and privacy of necessary data such as account details, financial data, or personal information. If the data is not secured, it could get hacked or leaked by unwanted users. The three basic principles of Information Security are.   

1. Confidentiality   

2. Integrity   

3. Availability   


A list of a few information security threats and vulnerabilities


  • Bomb attack
  • Default passwords not changed
  • Disaster (Man-made or natural)
  • Inadequate security awareness
  • Access to the network by unauthorized persons
  • Misuse of information systems
  • Lack of access control policy
  • Social engineering
  • Improper internal audit
  • Data Loss
  • Unprotected public network connections
  • Unauthorized access to the information system
  • Inadequate protection of cryptographic keys
  • Lack of data integrity
  • Sensitive data not being properly classified


Penetration Testing 


To address and safeguard against potential threats, incidents, data loss, and unauthorized activities, organizations rely on penetration testing, often referred to as a "pen test." This approach aids in fortifying computer systems against cyberattacks by scrutinizing both external and internal vulnerabilities. 

Penetration testing entails probing various application systems, including APIs, frontend/backend servers, to unearth vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities may encompass aspects such as inadequately validated inputs that could be exploited by code injection attacks. 

The initial step in assessing penetration testing involves identifying vulnerabilities, which denote weaknesses in software, hardware, organizational processes, services, and more. This examination enhances our comprehension of security performance and facilitates the implementation of corrective measures for any discovered issues. 

It's crucial to note that penetration testing is an ongoing endeavor rather than a one-off task. The following situations merit recurrent testing: 

1. Deployment of New Infrastructure or Applications: Whenever new infrastructure or applications are integrated into your company's network, it's prudent to conduct a fresh round of penetration testing. 

2. Physical Relocation or Expansion: If your business relocates or expands its network to encompass additional sites, revisiting penetration testing is essential to maintain security. 

3. Implementation of Security Measures: Whenever new safety measures or devices are introduced, re-evaluating your system's security through penetration testing is advisable. 

Why is Web Application Penetration Testing Performed? 

Web application penetration testing plays a vital role in assessing and enhancing the security of web applications, encompassing various elements like the database and network. Here are some common reasons why organizations perform web application penetration testing: 

1. Identifying Vulnerabilities: One of the primary objectives of penetration testing is to identify vulnerabilities within the targeted systems, infrastructure, support systems, and critical applications. This process helps organizations understand and address weaknesses that could potentially be exploited by malicious actors. 

2. Vulnerability Assessment: Penetration testing serves as an effective means to assess vulnerabilities in systems and networks. By pinpointing these vulnerabilities, businesses can take proactive measures to protect sensitive data from cyberattacks and data breaches, safeguarding both their reputation and customer trust. 

3. Enhancing Security: Regular penetration testing contributes to overall security enhancement. By uncovering weak points and addressing them before they can be exploited by attackers, organizations can fortify their defenses and reduce the risk of security breaches. 

4. Improving Reliability: Continuous penetration testing instills trust and fosters strong client relationships. By consistently meeting or exceeding end-user expectations, organizations build a dependable bond with their customers, enhancing reliability and confidence in their services.


Here is one diagram that can describe the importance of penetration testing. 



  • Fault Handling: Enables organizations to effectively manage issues arising from unexpected attacks, ensuring the smooth operation of their systems. 

  • Rule and Guideline Assessment: Assists in evaluating the true effectiveness of safety rules and guidelines, enhancing overall security. 

  • Early Risk Identification: Identifies various risks and errors in the initial phases, allowing for timely rectification and prevention of major disruptions. 

  • Error Minimization: Encourages developers to be more security-conscious, reducing the occurrence of vulnerabilities in applications, operating systems, and software during development.


What are the different types of Applications that can be tested by using Penetration testing? 

Penetration testing can be used to test a wide variety of applications, including those that are desktop, cloud, mobile, web service, and application programming interface (API)-based, as well as custom and other sorts of applications.    

 The OWASP Top Ten is a reference guide for application security for developers and testers. The danger to application security is reduced with the help of this document.  


Penetration testing tools 

Some tools are used to analyze the code and find its vulnerability or any security glitches. Here is a list of open-source tools used for penetration testing. 


  • Metasploit: This open-source tool serves a multifaceted purpose, delving into networks, online applications, servers, and more. Its primary function lies in identifying weaknesses within code or any potential defects that could lead to significant security breaches. By conducting thorough analyses, it diminishes the chances of application, software, or hardware failures. 

  • Nmap: Nmap functions as a network and system scanning tool, meticulously searching for open ports that might present vulnerabilities. 

  • Wireshark: Wireshark plays a crucial role in vulnerability assessment and network penetration testing by profiling network traffic and scrutinizing network packets. This open-source tool caters to various operating systems, including Windows, Solaris, and Linux. 

  • Aircrack: Designed for testing Wi-Fi devices and driver capabilities, Aircrack specializes in identifying flaws within wireless networks, monitoring data packets, and capturing data. Its focus areas encompass attacking, monitoring, testing, and cracking.

  • Cain & Abel: This tool is employed for network sniffing, primarily used to acquire network keys and passwords.
  • OWASP ZAP: A valuable tool for web application testing, OWASP ZAP is accessible to both seasoned professionals and those new to application security testing. It proves ideal for developers and testers seeking to delve into penetration testing.
  • Nessus: Developed by Tenable, Nessus enhances security assessments by swiftly identifying and addressing vulnerabilities, including malware and missing patches. It serves as a comprehensive solution for various IT infrastructure issues.
  • Burp Suite: A renowned manual penetration testing tool favored by ethical hackers, pen testers, and security engineers.

  • ZAP (Zed Attack Proxy): An open-source tool provided by OWASP, ZAP aids in the detection of numerous defects and vulnerabilities within web applications.

  • AppCheck: Covering every layer of an organization's IT assets, AppCheck meticulously tests for internal and external vulnerabilities. It excels in uncovering concealed issues that may only become visible through advanced out-of-band detection techniques.



There are lots of tools that are widely used based on the requirements of an individual or organization.